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  82. Study Shows that Disrupted Gut Bacteria May Contribute to the Spread of Breast Cancer
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Saturday, December 14, 2019
  1. Vegan Peanut Butter Cup Cookies (Gluten-Free!)
  2. Kid-approved vegan eats
  3. Fudgy Avocado Walnut Brownies
  4. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan: Week of 12-07-2019
  5. Amazing Vegan Ginger Molasses Cookies
  6. 2019 Holiday Gift Guide For Her
  7. Herbal Inclusions for Dishes and Drinks
  8. 4 Diabetes Game Changers
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  10. Instant Pot Mashed Potatoes with Garlic and Cream Cheese
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  12. Wedding Planning: The Ring, Our Vendors, and More!
  13. Instant Pot Vegan Cream of Mushroom and Wild Rice Soup
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  16. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan: Week of 11-02-2019
  17. Roasted Potato, Mushroom, and Lentil Kale Salad
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  19. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  20. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  21. What I Wednesday: FNCE in Philly!
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  23. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  24. Unearthing Evidence-Based Integrative Remedies to Stress
  25. Scribble Anxiety Away
  26. Best Hostess Gift Ever
  27. What I Ate Wednesday: Fiancé Edition!
  28. Pumpkin Walnut Burgers with Chipotle Yogurt Sauce
  29. Favorite Fluffy Whole Wheat Pancakes
  30. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  31. Vegan Chili Cornbread Casserole
  32. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  33. Orca Conservation
  34. Fall’s Functional Foods
  35. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  36. Healthy Pumpkin Cheesecake Dip
  37. Simple Swaps for Your Zero Waste Journey
  38. Lessons on Food and Farming in Monterey, California
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  42. Here’s How to Live a more Colourful Life
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  44. Eco-friendly Food Storage
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  46. How to Make Sushi Sandwich
  47. Healthy Vegan Buffalo Cauliflower Dip
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  54. What I Ate Wednesday
  55. The Best Apple Cider Vinegar Salad Dressing
  56. VOTE TODAY!
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  58. Twilight Time: Reading With Kids
  59. Keep your cool
  60. Tart Cherry Crumble Pie
  61. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  62. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  63. Your brain on… air pollution?
  64. Brain Boosters
  65. MCT oil Coconut’s healthful gift
  66. Hot right now
  67. Cupcakes for breakfast?
  68. Vegan Chocolate Zucchini Muffins
  69. What is CBD? A Guide to Health Benefits, Usage, and More!
  70. Healthy Vegetarian Meal Plan
  71. Hummus Toast – 4 Ways!
  72. What I Ate Wednesday
  73. Fluffy Vegan Blueberry Banana Muffins
  74. Advances in Colorectal Cancer Research
  75. Advances in Breast Cancer Research
  76. Cleft Palate With Cleft Lip
  77. What is CPR?
  78. What Is Dementia? Symptoms, Types, and Diagnosis
  79. Cushing Syndrome (For Parents)
  80. Do Memory Problems Always Mean Alzheimers Disease?
  81. Manganese
  82. Study Shows that Disrupted Gut Bacteria May Contribute to the Spread of Breast Cancer
  83. She Faced Breast Cancer At 16 With Little Help From Doctors. Now She’s Speaking Out On Behalf Of Black Women
  84. What Do We Know About Healthy Aging?
  85. Participating in the Arts Creates Paths to Healthy Aging
  86. Setting Goals to be More Active Slows Memory Decline in Older African Americans
  87. Study Shows Music Eases Pain and Other Symptoms for Patients Undergoing Breast Cancer Treatment
  88. 49-Year-Old Breast Cancer Patient Grateful She Didn’t Wait Until 50 for a Mammogram
  89. Teen’s Innovative “SMART Armour” Protects Breast Cancer Patients from Radiation
  90. New Drug Improves 3-Year Survival by 50% for Young Women with Stage IV Breast Cancer
  91. Young Mother’s Life Tragically Taken by Breast Cancer After She Refused Traditional Treatments
  92. NIH Study Tracks Exercise with Mobile Apps to Improve Heart Health
  93. Lion With Skin Cancer Has Received Radiation Therapy In Hospital
  94. 3rd Grader Writes Note for Teacher Battling Breast Cancer to Read Right Before Treatment
  95. Skin Care
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  97. The Final Word on Whether Alcohol Actually Has Any Health Benefits
  98. New One-Time “Seed” Treatment for Breast Cancer Being Used in Philadelphia
  99. Julia Louis-Dreyfus Talks About The Side Effects of Chemotherapy
  100. Teacher on Leave for Breast Cancer Treatment Forced to Pay for Her Own Substitute
  101. 27-Year-Old Thought She Was Injured Falling Off A Horse, But Then She Learned She Had Breast Cancer
  102. Should Surgery And Radiation Be The Standard Treatment For DCIS? The COMET Study Is Finding Out
  103. Judge Rules That 3-Year-Old Child With Leukemia Must Get Chemo Against Parents’ Wishes
  104. This Charcoal Powder Drastically Whitens Teeth Without Any Chemicals
  105. These Black Cherry-Flavored Shots Help Accelerate Weight Loss
  106. Olivia Newton-John Talks About How She Stays Positive Amid Cancer Battle
  107. This Army Captain Mom Was Diagnosed with Breast Cancer When She Was Just 8 Weeks Pregnant
  108. High-Deductible Health Plans Linked to Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer
  109. Antibiotic shortages are putting Aboriginal kids at risk – The Conversation AU
  110. Cuddle beds bringing some physical comfort to end-of-life patients – ABC News
  111. People who skip breakfast are five times more likely to die after a heart attack – Daily Mail
  112. Yale researchers revive cells in dead pig brains – Yale Daily News
  113. Scientists revive cellular activity in brain of dead pigs: report – Fox News
  114. High-Deductible Health Policies Linked To Delayed Diagnosis And Treatment – NPR
  115. After Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Technology Professor Teaches Computers to Read Mammograms
  116. Fact or Fiction: What to Know About Smoking Cessation and Medications
  117. If Soap and Water Are Not Available, Hand Sanitizers May Be a Good Alternative
  118. Autism: Beware of Potentially Dangerous Therapies and Products
  119. One side of your brain might be giving you nightmares – Cosmos
  120. What Personality Tests Tell Us About Ourselves – NPR
  121. Having a resting heart rate of 75 beats per minute DOUBLES your risk of an early death – Daily Mail
  122. Wear protective goggles to play badminton
  123. Herbal drug kratom linked to almost 100 overdose deaths, CDC says – USA TODAY
  124. Ability to lift weights quickly can mean a longer life – EurekAlert
  125. Climate change is making allergy season worse – CNN
  126. 11 Unexpected Ways You Can Relieve Headaches – HuffPost
  127. New Jersey preschoolers have highest autism rates in the nation, researchers say
  128. Auburn gymnast who suffered severe injuries: My pain is not your entertainment
  129. A four-day work week could improve our health and cut carbon emissions
  130. Promising treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome fails large trial

Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—and behavioral abilities to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. These functions include memory, language skills, visual perception, problem solving, self-management, and the ability to focus and pay attention. Some people with dementia cannot control their emotions, and their personalities may change. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person’s functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of living.

Older woman with glasses wearing a sariSigns and symptoms of dementia result when once-healthy neurons (nerve cells) in the brain stop working, lose connections with other brain cells, and die. While everyone loses some neurons as they age, people with dementia experience far greater loss.

While dementia is more common as people grow older (up to half of all people age 85 or older may have some form of dementia), it is not a normal part of aging. Many people live into their 90s and beyond without any signs of dementia. One type of dementia, frontotemporal disorders, is more common in middle-aged than older adults.

The causes of dementia can vary, depending on the types of brain changes that may be taking place. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia in older adults. Other dementias include Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal disorders, and vascular dementia. It is common for people to have mixed dementia—a combination of two or more types of dementia. For example, some people have both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.

What are the Different Types of Dementia?

Hispanic man with dementia sitting in a parkVarious disorders and factors contribute to the development of dementia. Neurodegenerative disorders result in a progressive and irreversible loss of neurons and brain functioning. Currently, there are no cures for these types of disorders. They include:

Other types of progressive brain disease include:

Other conditions that cause dementia-like symptoms can be halted or even reversed with treatment. For example, normal pressure hydrocephalus, an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, often resolves with treatment.

In addition, certain medical conditions can cause serious memory problems that resemble dementia. These problems should go away once the conditions are treated. These conditions include:

  • Side effects of certain medicines
  • Emotional problems, such as stress, anxiety, or depression
  • Certain vitamin deficiencies
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Blood clots, tumors, or infections in the brain
  • Delirium
  • Head injury, such as a concussion from a fall or accident
  • Thyroid, kidney, or liver problems

Doctors have identified many other conditions that can cause dementia or dementia-like symptoms. These conditions include:

The overlap in symptoms of various dementias can make it hard to get an accurate diagnosis. But a proper diagnosis is important to get the right treatment. Seek help from a neurologist—a doctor who specializes in disorders of the brain and nervous system—or other medical specialist who knows about dementia.

How is Dementia Diagnosed?

Doctor studying brain scansTo diagnose dementia, doctors first assess whether a person has an underlying treatable condition such as abnormal thyroid function, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or a vitamin deficiency that may relate to cognitive difficulties. Early detection of symptoms is important, as some causes can be treated. In many cases, the specific type of dementia a person has may not be confirmed until after the person has died and the brain is examined.

A medical assessment for dementia generally includes:

  • Medical history. Typical questions about a person’s medical and family history might include asking about whether dementia runs in the family, how and when symptoms began, changes in behavior and personality, and if the person is taking certain medications that might cause or worsen symptoms.
  • Physical exam. Measuring blood pressure and other vital signs may help physicians detect conditions that might cause or occur with dementia. Some conditions may be treatable.
  • Neurological tests. Assessing balance, sensory response, reflexes, and other cognitive functions helps identify conditions that may affect the diagnosis or are treatable with drugs.

What Tests are Used to Diagnose Dementia?

The following procedures also may be used to diagnose dementia:

  • Cognitive and neuropsychological tests. These tests are used to assess memory, problem solving, language skills, math skills, and other abilities related to mental functioning.
  • Laboratory tests. Testing a person’s blood and other fluids , as well as checking levels of various chemicals, hormones, and vitamins, can help find or rule out possible causes of symptoms.
  • Brain scans. These tests can identify strokes, tumors, and other problems that can cause dementia. Scans also identify changes in the brain’s structure and function. The most common scans are:

    • Computed tomography (CT), which uses x rays to produce images of the brain and other organs
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of body structures, including tissues, organs, bones, and nerves
    • Positron emission tomography (PET), which uses radiation to provide pictures of brain activity
  • Psychiatric evaluation. This evaluation will help determine if depression or another mental health condition is causing or contributing to a person’s symptoms.
  • Genetic tests. Some dementias are caused by a known gene defect. In these cases, a genetic test can help people know if they are at risk for dementia. It is important to talk with a genetic counselor before and after getting tested, along with family members and the doctor.

NIA Alzheimer’s and related Dementias Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center
1-800-438-4380 (toll-free)
adear@nia.nih.gov
www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers
The National Institute on Aging’s ADEAR Center offers information and free print publications about Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias for families, caregivers, and health professionals. ADEAR Center staff answer telephone, email, and written requests and make referrals to local and national resources.

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